The macaques (/məˈkɑːk/ or /məˈkæk/) constitute a genus (Macaca) of Old World monkeys of the subfamily Cercopithecinae.
Aside from humans (genus Homo), the macaques are the most widespread primate genus, ranging from Japan to Afghanistan and, in the case of the barbary macaque (Macaca sylvanus), to North Africa and Southern Europe. Twenty-two macaque species are currently recognized, including some of the monkeys best known to non-zoologists, such as the rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta), and the barbary macaque, a colony of which lives on the Rock of Gibraltar. Although several species lack tails and their common names therefore refer to them as apes, these are true monkeys, with no greater relationship to the true apes than any other Old World monkeys.
In some species, skin folds join the second through fifth toes, almost reaching the first metatarsal joint.
Macaques have a very intricate social structure and hierarchy. If a macaque of a lower level in the social chain has eaten berries and none are left for a higher-level macaque, then the one higher in status can, within this social organization, remove the berries from the other monkey's mouth.
Relation with humans
Several species of macaques are used extensively in animal testing, particularly in the neuroscience of visual perception and the visual system.
Nearly all (73–100%) pet and captive macaques are carriers of the herpes B virus. This virus is harmless to macaques, but infections of humans, while rare, are potentially fatal, a risk that makes macaques unsuitable as pets.
A 2005 University of Toronto study showed urban performing macaques also carried simian foamy virus, suggesting they could be involved in the species-to-species jump of similar retroviruses to humans.
M. sylvanus group
- Barbary macaque, M. sylvanus
M. nemestrina group
- Lion-tailed macaque, M. silenus
- Southern pig-tailed macaque or beruk, M. nemestrina
- Northern pig-tailed macaque, M. leonina
- Pagai Island macaque, M. pagensis
- Siberut macaque, M. siberu
- Moor macaque, M. maura
- Booted macaque, M. ochreata
- Tonkean macaque, M. tonkeana
- Heck's macaque, M. hecki
- Gorontalo macaque, Macaca nigrescens
- Celebes crested macaque, M. nigra
M. fascicularis group
- Crab-eating macaque, M. fascicularis (also known as the long-tailed macaque)
- Stump-tailed macaque, M. arctoides
M. mulatta group
- Rhesus macaque, M. mulatta
- Formosan rock macaque, M. cyclopis
- Japanese macaque, M. fuscata
M. sinica group
- Toque macaque, M. sinica
- Bonnet macaque, M. radiata
- Assam macaque, M. assamensis
- Tibetan macaque, M. thibetana
- Arunachal macaque, M. munzala
Prehistoric (fossil) species:
- Macaca anderssoni Schlosser, 1924
- M. jiangchuanensis Pan et al., 1992
- M. libyca Stromer, 1920
- M. majori Schaub & Azzaroli in Comaschi Caria, 1969 (sometimes included in M. sylvanus)
Stump-tailed macaque (M. arctoides)
Japanese macaque (M. fuscata)
Pig-tailed macaque (M. nemestrina)
- Herpes B virus
- Kayabukiya Tavern
- Macaque brain development timeline