Difference Between Dual Federalism and Cooperative Federalism

Difference Between Dual Federalism and Cooperative Federalism

A nation is run by the policies and administration of the government in power. They are responsible for decisions, development and integrity.

Each country runs on its ideology, some countries follow a monarchy like the UK, some follow a one party system like China where a single party dictates and regulates the entire nation while few are multi-party like India where the powers that be are probable interchangeable.

In a country that has a multiparty system; power is not centered and is a seesaw of possibilities.

Federalism is one of those ways in which the exercise of power is divided within the nation, meaning that the elected government with the most votes in the nation forms a central government, while the party with the majority within a state forms the state government.

A federal nation allows the resident population to elect their representative and bring them to power regardless of the winning party at the center.

Federalism can work in two ways based on the power to make independent decisions; Dual federalism or cooperative federalism can be adopted by a constitution to divide powers.

The difference between dual federalism and cooperative federalism is in the division and regulation of power. Dual federalism supports an equal division; the government in a state can hold the ultimate power in hand, while in cooperative federalism, power is shared, where state decisions are equally seen by the central government.

What is dual federalism?

Popularly explained as a method of distributing power in layers of cake, where each layer of cake signifies a limit metaphorically. Dual federalism is the distribution of powers at both the central and state levels.

Dual federalism dates back to American history, where it was first introduced in 1781 to create separate spheres of jurisdiction. The US system is a classic example, a federal government and 50 state governments.

It is a political arrangement with clearly established terms under the respective constitution. The state government is independent in the operation and formation of policies, the central government cannot intervene in the affairs of the state.

This type of federalism benefits the population by electing an authority based on ideology and ethnicity in majority independent of a rule. Countries like India are the ones that benefit the most from it,

All national affairs, defense policies, international trade are under the central government, while the state can form separate criminal laws, policies that benefit the region.

What is cooperative federalism?

Cooperative federalism is a mutual relationship between the state and the central government in terms of power, policies and implementation.

Also popularly known as marble cake federalism because the dividing line between the center and the elected heads of state is blurred, the policies are interlinked, and the whole process works in the same sphere.

The term was introduced in the year 1901 where all the separate political bodies functioned together, among the various levels of government for the same cause i.e. nation.

It has its advantages and disadvantages, the independent power of the state dissolves and can create a dispute between central and state politics. While on the other hand, if it is well organized, it can improve relationships and facilitate a cultural exchange.

Main differences between dual federalism and cooperative federalism

  • The main difference between dual federalism and cooperative federalism is in the division of powers, in dual federalism the powers are divided between the state and the center where the latter, the operation is mutual, the state and the center share the powers.
  • Dual federalism could be identified between the years 1789-1901, while it was after 1901 that cooperative federalism experienced an increase.
  • Dual federalism is explained by the layer cake metaphor; however, the marble cake analogy is used to explain cooperative federalism.
  • In dual federalism, the state and the center do not work together, the government elected by the state forms its appropriate policies for the region and the people, while in cooperative federalism decisions are the same for all.
  • Dual federalism can create boundaries within the people of a nation, some people may get benefits while other states under the central government may not experience the same, cooperative federalism, on the other hand, can create disputes between the elected parties in the can.

Wasim tariq W

Wasim tariq

Comments (0)

You Must Be Logged In To Comment