Rosenhain made his debut at the age of 11. During their 1837 season, he was a soloist with the London Philharmonic Orchestra (on April 17), which in 1854 (also in April) programmed one of his symphonies.
He worked with Johann Baptist Cramer on a published school of piano-playing. From 1849 he made his home in Paris. He was a friend of Felix Mendelssohn at least from 1839.